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Temple at Kom Ombos, relief detail of offering scene
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Item Details
Public
Available to everyone
Culture
Egyptian
Title
Temple at Kom Ombos, relief detail of offering scene
Work Type
Temple; photographs
Location
Egypt, Aswan
Material
black and white photography
Measurements
25 x 20.8 cm
Description
Site on a promontory of the west bank of the Nile, between Aswan and Edfu. Very little remains of the ancient Egyptian city of Ombos, which in Ptolemaic times (c. 332–30 BCE) was capital of the 1st nome of Upper Egypt. However, the temple complex, dedicated to the crocodile-god Sebek and the hawk-god Haroeris (an aspect of Horus), is well preserved. The site was known to early European travellers and to the first Egyptologists, such as Champollion and Rosellini, but the clearance of the temple did not begin until the work of Jacques de Morgan in 1893. The main temple was first constructed in the reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor (reg 180–145 BCE), but its decoration continued throughout the Ptolemaic era (particularly in the reign of Ptolemy XII Auletes; c. 80–51 BCE) and the period of Roman rule (Augustus, Tiberius, Domitian and Trajan; c. 30 BCE–CE 117). Surrounded by two concentric corridors, the temple is bisected lengthways, with double entrances and two sanctuaries to house the sacred barks of two triads of gods. The southern sanctuary is dedicated to Sebek, Hathor and Khonsu, and the northern to Haroeris, Tasenetnefert ('the good sister') and Panebtawy ('the lord of the two lands'). The temple walls still bear important reliefs of a liturgical nature, and the unfinished ones in the rooms behind the sanctuaries are invaluable in enhancing knowledge of the techniques used to create reliefs. Kom Ombo became an important centre of pilgrimage, particularly for the purpose of healing, during the Ptolemaic period. The reliefs on the wall of the outer corridor, dating to the 2nd century ad, include a depiction of a set of instruments, which may be either ritual or surgical implements. The most interesting of the temple reliefs is the 'cult relief', dating to the reign of Trajan (reg 98–117). The temple complex also incorporates a Mammisi ('birth house'), a chapel of Hathor and a system of two circular wells. The mammisi dates to the reign of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (reg 170–116 BCE), with reliefs including an important depiction of a royal hunt among papyrus plants. The chapel of Hathor was decorated by the Lady Petronia and her children, according to a Greek inscription of the 7th year of the reign of Domitian (CE 87). The system of wells, dating to the Roman period, consists of a pool for the sacred crocodile and a hydraulic installation for the use of the temple.Grove Dictionary of Art
Repository
Washington University (Saint Louis, Mo.) Art & Architecture Library
Source
Volume 03: Egypt I Page 20
Variant Title
Koum-Ombos / Kawm Umbū / Ombos
Image Materials/Technique
albumen paper
Inscription
on album page, lower left, in black ink: Koum-Ombos, Bass Relief.
Rights
Permission to use, copy and distribute is hereby granted for non-commercial and education purposes only, following fair use guidelines.
Permission to use, copy and distribute is hereby granted for non-commercial and education purposes only, following fair use guidelines
Permission to use, copy and distribute is hereby granted for non-commercial and education purposes only, following fair use guidelines
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License
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File Properties
File Name
1341572.fpx
SSID
1341572

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